The working principle of solar charging controller
Although the control circuit of a solar charging controller varies in complexity depending on the photovoltaic system, its basic principle is the same.
The system consists of photovoltaic components, batteries, control circuit, and loads. Switch 1 and switch 2 are the charging switch and discharging switch, respectively. When switch 1 is closed, the photovoltaic component charges the battery, and switch 1 can automatically restore the battery's charging according to the pre-set protection mode. When switch 2 is closed, the battery supplies power to the load. When the battery is recharged and reaches the pre-set recovery charging point, switch 2 can automatically restore power supply.
The main functions of solar charging controller
When the charging voltage is higher than the protection voltage, the solar charging controller will automatically turn off the battery charging. Afterward, when the voltage drops to the maintenance voltage, the battery enters the float state. When it falls below the recovery voltage, the float is turned off, and it enters the equalization state.
When the battery voltage is lower than the protection voltage, the solar charging controller will automatically turn off the output to protect the battery from damage. When the battery is recharged, it can automatically restore power supply.
Load over-current and short-circuit protection
When the load current exceeds 10A or the load is short-circuited, the fuse wire will be melted. After replacement, it can continue to be used.
When the voltage is too high, the output will be automatically turned off to protect the device from damage.
Reverse charging protection
Using a Schottky diode to prevent the battery from charging the solar cell.
Lightning protection function
When there is lightning, the voltage-dependent resistor can prevent lightning strikes and protect the solar charging controller from damage.
Conclusion: The basic function of a solar charging controller is to control the battery voltage and open the circuit. In addition, when the battery voltage rises to a certain degree, the charging of the battery will stop. Old-fashioned controllers mechanically complete the opening or closing of the control circuit, and stop or start the power transmission from the power source to the battery.
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